Silica fibers made of sodium silicate (water glass) are used in heat protection (including asbestos substitution) and in packings and compensators. They can be made such that they are substantially free from non-alkali metal compounds.
Sodium silicate fibers may be used for subsequent production of silica fibers, which is better than producing the latter from a melt containing SiO2 or by acid-leaching of glass fibers. The silica fibers are useful for producing wet webs, filter linings and reinforcing material.
They can also be used to produce silicic acid fibers by a dry spinning method. These fibers have properties which make them useful in friction-lining materials.
Silica-Based Woven Textile products have been specifically designed for high temperature use.
Silica is available in a variety of product forms: Woven Fabrics, Woven Tapes, Non-woven Blankets, Bulk Fiber, Modules, Braiding Yarns, and other specialty forms such as Sleeving, Rope Gasket, and Cord.
Silica textiles provide excellent thermal and acoustic protection. These high-temperature resistant textiles products insulate and provide continuous protection in environments up to 1800°F (982°C), while maintaining their strength and flexibility.
Some woven Fabric contain a special coating that provides exceptional functioning when higher temperature performance, up to 2300°F (1260°C), is required
Non-woven Felts are available in a specially processed version that provides higher resistance to residual shrinkage (<1%) and degradation in extreme environments.
Siilica products can withstand excursions to 2900°F (1593°C) with minimal embrittlement and shrinkage.
Silica products are available in > 96% silica content. They resist oxidation, most corrosive solutions and chemicals, and they present no known health hazard.
Applications for Silica products range from welding blankets to satellite shrouds, firewalls to aircraft insulation, furnace curtains to thermal couple insulation wrap.
Silica Needlemats are made from special glass fibers with a filament diameter of 6-9 microns. They represent a modern product generation that, in any aspect, meets with all stringent requirements as to temperature consistency and environmental health standards. Silica glass fibers consist of nearly 95% SiO(2). Because of their low thermal conductivity they are the ideal raw material for the production of flexible insulation mats formed mechanically without the use of chemical bonding agents. These mats keep a very high chemical and physical stability up to 1,800 degr. F. (For application temperatures not higher than 1,200 degrees F, we recommend the more cost efficient E-Glass Needlemat).
The easy handling of the mats allow the cutting of the material into any desired shape and form.
Silica fabrics are consisting of special glass fibers with an average filament diameter of approx. 6 micron. They represent a modern product generation that, in any aspect meets with all stringent requirements as to temperature consistency and environmental health standards. Approx. 95% of the Silica glass fibers consist of SiO(2). They are the ideal raw material for the production of fabrics and tapes with very high chemical and physical stability of up to 1,800 degr. F. As per customers specification these Silica fabrics can be finished with various coatings.
Rebar (short for reinforcing bar), also known as reinforcing steel, reinforcement steel, is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used as a tension device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures to strengthen and hold the concrete in tension. Rebar's surface is often patterned to form a better bond with the concrete.
The above description from the Wikippedia does not include Basalt, but nowadays, Basalt is available, as well.
Below are a few highlights utilizing Basalt instead of e.g. the commonly used Steel:
Higher specific strength
Approx. 10% of Basalt Rebar needed to achieve the same results as with Steel Rebars
Resistant to corrosion or deterioration caused by natural elements
Alkaline and acide resistant
Same thermal expansion as concrete, reducing the formation of cracks
A Needled Blanket is compressed into a board with the help of a Phenolic resin. This value added treatment allows the material to be dye-cut or molded into almost any common shape.
While the board could be used in almost identical applications as the Basalt Needlefelt is used in, it also allows for additional markets, such as in pipe wrappings, ladles, furnaces, or high temperature insulations, up to approximately 1,600 degrees F in general.
In highly competitive markets, this board can be used in conjunction with insulation materials of lower K-values, at lower cost. In those instances, the board serves as high temperature facing layer, with the purpose in lowering the temperature far enough for the second layer to withstand. In this example, the second layer could be a fiberglass Needlemat. In other instances, there may be even a third and a fourth layer.
In order to recommend the best insulation system, it will be required to know exactly about the environment this material will be facing.
Basalt Fabrics in general can be applied where E-Glass, sometimes S-Glass or Carbon Fabrics can be used, as well. As Basalt is more expensive than E-Glass, but cheaper than Carbon Fibers, typically it finds implementations, more suitable to its particular properties and fills an important gab when it comes to cost-performance ratios.
Knowing how Basalt compares to other fibers allow to precisely engineer an optimal solution, which could also be in form of a hybrid (combining Basalt with other Fibers made from Glass, Carbon, Kevlar, etc.)
An Example of an Engineered FRP.
In Fiber Reinforcement Products (FRP) the engineer chooses the fiber, based on the desired outcome. E.g. if lighter weight requirements at identical strength to currently used fibers are required or if higher strengths are necessary while staying within the weight specifications.
There are other examples relevant to durability, corrosion resistances, break strength, chemical resistances, thermal applications, etc.
Engineers often choose unidirectional fabric when strength mostly in one direction only is required. This then presents a more lightweight and cost attractive solution.
Multi-Axial Fabrics consists of a numerous amount of layers stitched together.
Each single layer may be of a different, individual construction, whereas it can be a woven fabric, a unidirectional fabric or any other version. The choice of materials may be different. E.g. it could be a combination of Glass & Basalt, or Carbon & Kevlar & Glass.
In Multi-Axial Fabrics, often the manufacturer takes advantage of positioning the layers of fabric to where the main fiber direction points into a different angle to the previous or the following layer.
This allows for optimal utilization of the fiber properties, in most cases the strength requirements.
Following graph illustrates one example of a Muli-Axial Fabric:
A four layer Multi-Axial Fabric would be called a Quadraxial fabric. it Can have the main fiber direction of the layers point in 3 or four different directions (degrees).
The following graph illustrates the necessary stitching-assembly process.