Technical fibers, such as Basalt, Glass, Carbon, Kevlar and others can be carded. The carding process allows also for blending materials. You could have a few feeding stations with weighing capabilities defining the required input. Those materials will then be transferred onto a conveyor belt. From there, they will be brought to a hopper which can blend the materials by the means of air. The hopper conducts the blended fibers to another conveyor system. This system can transport it to the next desired textile process. Often the fibers will be formed into slivers which allow for a spinning process afterwards.
Carder: A typical carder has a single large drum (the swift) accompanied by a pair of in-feed rollers (nippers), one or more pairs of worker and stripper rollers, a fancy, and a doffer. In-feed to the carder is usually accomplished by a conveyor belt and often the output of the cottage carder is stored as a batt or further processed into a roving and wound into bumps with an accessory bump winder.
The Process: Raw fiber, placed on the in-feed table or conveyor is moved to the nippers which restrain and meter the fiber onto the swift. As they are transferred to the swift, many of the fibers are straightened and laid into the swift's card cloth. These fibers will be carried past the worker / stripper rollers to the fancy.
As the swift carries the fibers forward, from the nippers, those fibers that are not yet straightened are picked up by a worker and carried over the top to its paired stripper. Relative to the surface speed of the swift, the worker turns quite slowly. This has the effect of reversing the fiber. The stripper, which turns at a higher speed than the worker, pulls fibers from the worker and passes them to the swift. The stripper's relative surface speed is slower than the swift's so the swift pulls the fibres from the stripper for additional straightening.
Straightened fibers are carried by the swift to the fancy. The fancy's card cloth is designed to engage with the swift's card cloth so that the fibers are lifted to the tips of the swift's card cloth and carried by the swift to the doffer. The fancy and the swift are the only rollers in the carding process that actually touch.
The slowly turning doffer removes the fibers from the swift and carries them to the fly comb where they are stripped from the doffer. A fine web of more or less parallel fiber, a few fibers thick and as wide as the carder's rollers, exits the carder at the fly comb by gravity or other mechanical means for storage or further processing.
Silica fibers made of sodium silicate (water glass) are used in heat protection (including asbestos substitution) and in packings and compensators. They can be made such that they are substantially free from non-alkali metal compounds.
Sodium silicate fibers may be used for subsequent production of silica fibers, which is better than producing the latter from a melt containing SiO2 or by acid-leaching of glass fibers. The silica fibers are useful for producing wet webs, filter linings and reinforcing material.
They can also be used to produce silicic acid fibers by a dry spinning method. These fibers have properties which make them useful in friction-lining materials.
Silica-Based Woven Textile products have been specifically designed for high temperature use.
Silica is available in a variety of product forms: Woven Fabrics, Woven Tapes, Non-woven Blankets, Bulk Fiber, Modules, Braiding Yarns, and other specialty forms such as Sleeving, Rope Gasket, and Cord.
Silica textiles provide excellent thermal and acoustic protection. These high-temperature resistant textiles products insulate and provide continuous protection in environments up to 1800°F (982°C), while maintaining their strength and flexibility.
Some woven Fabric contain a special coating that provides exceptional functioning when higher temperature performance, up to 2300°F (1260°C), is required
Non-woven Felts are available in a specially processed version that provides higher resistance to residual shrinkage (<1%) and degradation in extreme environments.
Siilica products can withstand excursions to 2900°F (1593°C) with minimal embrittlement and shrinkage.
Silica products are available in > 96% silica content. They resist oxidation, most corrosive solutions and chemicals, and they present no known health hazard.
Applications for Silica products range from welding blankets to satellite shrouds, firewalls to aircraft insulation, furnace curtains to thermal couple insulation wrap.
Silica Needlemats are made from special glass fibers with a filament diameter of 6-9 microns. They represent a modern product generation that, in any aspect, meets with all stringent requirements as to temperature consistency and environmental health standards. Silica glass fibers consist of nearly 95% SiO(2). Because of their low thermal conductivity they are the ideal raw material for the production of flexible insulation mats formed mechanically without the use of chemical bonding agents. These mats keep a very high chemical and physical stability up to 1,800 degr. F. (For application temperatures not higher than 1,200 degrees F, we recommend the more cost efficient E-Glass Needlemat).
The easy handling of the mats allow the cutting of the material into any desired shape and form.
Silica fabrics are consisting of special glass fibers with an average filament diameter of approx. 6 micron. They represent a modern product generation that, in any aspect meets with all stringent requirements as to temperature consistency and environmental health standards. Approx. 95% of the Silica glass fibers consist of SiO(2). They are the ideal raw material for the production of fabrics and tapes with very high chemical and physical stability of up to 1,800 degr. F. As per customers specification these Silica fabrics can be finished with various coatings.
Basalt Standard Fabrics in general can be applied where E-Glass, sometimes S-Glass or Carbon Fabrics can be used, as well. As Basalt is more expensive than E-Glass, but cheaper than Carbon Fibers, typically it finds implementations, more suitable to its particular properties and fills an important gab when it comes to cost-performance ratios.
Knowing how Basalt compares to other fibers allow to precisely engineer an optimal solution, which could also be in form of a hybrid (combining Basalt with other Fibers made from Glass, Carbon, Kevlar, etc.)
An Example of an Engineered FRP.
In Fiber Reinforced Products (FRP) the engineer chooses the fiber, based on the desired outcome. E.g. if lighter weight requirements at identical strength to currently used fibers are required or if higher strengths are necessary while staying within the weight specifications.
There are other examples relevant to durability, corrosion resistances, break strength, chemical resistances, thermal applications, etc.
Our Team will be more than glad to assist or consult with design applications.