Posted on

Info Silica Fiber

Source Wikipedia:

Silica fibers made of sodium silicate (water glass) are used in heat protection (including asbestos substitution) and in packings and compensators. They can be made such that they are substantially free from non-alkali metal compounds.

Sodium silicate fibers may be used for subsequent production of silica fibers, which is better than producing the latter from a melt containing SiO2 or by acid-leaching of glass fibers. The silica fibers are useful for producing wet webs, filter linings and reinforcing material.

They can also be used to produce silicic acid fibers by a dry spinning method. These fibers have properties which make them useful in friction-lining materials.[1]

 

Silica-Based Woven Textile products have been specifically designed for high temperature use.
Silica is available in a variety of product forms: Woven Fabrics, Woven Tapes, Non-woven Blankets, Bulk Fiber, Modules, Braiding Yarns, and other specialty forms such as Sleeving, Rope Gasket, and Cord.

Silica textiles provide excellent thermal and acoustic protection. These high-temperature resistant textiles products insulate and provide continuous protection in environments up to 1800°F (982°C), while maintaining their strength and flexibility.

  • Some woven Fabric contain a special coating that provides exceptional functioning when higher temperature performance, up to 2300°F (1260°C), is required
  • Non-woven Felts are available in a specially processed version that provides higher resistance to residual shrinkage (<1%) and degradation in extreme environments.
  • Siilica products can withstand excursions to 2900°F (1593°C) with minimal embrittlement and shrinkage.
  • Silica products are available in > 96% silica content. They resist oxidation, most corrosive solutions and chemicals, and they present no known health hazard.
  • Applications for Silica products range from welding blankets to satellite shrouds, firewalls to aircraft insulation, furnace curtains to thermal couple insulation wrap.
Posted on

Carbon Fiber – Applications

AEROSPACE

Rising fuel costs, environmental regulations and an increase in airline traffic have helped drive the increasing use of composite materials in the aerospace industry. Composites are used in military, business and commercial aircraft of all sizes, including spacecraft.

ARCHITECTURE

The architecture community is experiencing substantial growth in the understanding and use of composites. Composites offer architects and designers performance and value in large-scale projects and their use is increasing in commercial and residential buildings.

AUTOMOTIVE

The automotive industry is no stranger to composites. In addition to enabling groundbreaking vehicle designs, composites are also being used to reduce vehicle weight and cut CO2 emissions.

ENERGY

New advancements in composites are redefining the energy industry. Composites help enable the use of wind and solar power and improve the efficiency of traditional energy suppliers.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Composites are used all over the world to help construct and repair a wide variety of infrastructure applications, from buildings and bridges to roads to and railways.

MARINE

The marine industry has experienced a steady rise in the use of composites. In addition to helping hulls be lighter and more damage-resistant, composites can be found in many more areas of a maritime vessel–from interior moldings to furniture on super yachts.

MILITARY

Military-grade composites are used in a number of applications for their low weight, long life and ability to help protect people and equipment from harm. Aerial drones, armored fighting vehicles, submarines and body armor can contain composites materials.

SPORTS & RECREATION

From football helmets to hockey sticks to kayaks to bobsleds, composite materials help athletes reach their highest performance capabilities and provide durable, lightweight equipment for weekend warriors.

Posted on

Carbon Fiber – History

Source: "Wikipedia"

History[edit]

In 1860 Joseph Swan produced carbon fibres for the first time, for use in light bulbs.[1]

In 1879, Thomas Edison baked cotton threads or bamboo slivers at high temperatures carbonizing them into an all-carbon fiber filament used in one of the first incandescent light bulbs to be heated by electricity.[2] In 1880, Lewis Latimer developed a reliable carbon wire filament for the incandescent light bulb, heated by electricity.[3]

In 1958, Roger Bacon created high-performance carbon fibers at the Union Carbide Parma Technical Center, now GrafTech International Holdings, Inc., located outside of Cleveland, Ohio.[4] Those fibers were manufactured by heating strands of rayon until they carbonized. This process proved to be inefficient, as the resulting fibers contained only about 20% carbon and had low strength and stiffness properties. In the early 1960s, a process was developed by Dr. Akio Shindo at Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of Japan, using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a raw material. This had produced a carbon fiber that contained about 55% carbon. In 1960 Richard Millington of H.I. Thompson Fiberglas Co. developed a process (US Patent No. 3,294,489) for producing a high carbon content (99%) fiber using rayon as a precursor. These carbon fibers had sufficient strength (modulus of elasticity and tensile strength) to be used as a reinforcement for composites having high strength to weight properties and for high temperature resistant applications

The high potential strength of carbon fiber was realized in 1963 in a process developed by W. Watt, L. N. Phillips, and W. Johnson at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough, Hampshire. The process was patented by the UK Ministry of Defence, then licensed by the NRDC to three British companies: Rolls-Royce already making carbon fiber, Morganite, and Courtaulds. Within a few years, after successful use in 1968 of a Hyfil carbon-fiber fan assembly in the Conways of the Vickers VC10s operated by BOAC,[5]Rolls-Royce took advantage of the new material's properties to break into the American market with its RB-211 aero-engine with carbon-fiber compressor blades. Unfortunately, the blades proved vulnerable to damage from bird impact. This problem and others caused Rolls-Royce such setbacks that the company was nationalized in 1971. The carbon-fiber production plant was sold off to form "Bristol Composites".

In the late 1960s, the Japanese took the lead in manufacturing PAN-based carbon fibers. The 1970 joint technology agreement allowed Union Carbide to manufacture the Japan’s Toray Industries superior product and United States to dominate the market. Morganite decided that carbon-fiber production was peripheral to its core business, leaving Courtaulds as the only big UK manufacturer. Continuing collaboration with the staff at Farnborough proved helpful in the quest for higher quality and improvements in the speed of production as Courtaulds developed two main markets: aerospace and sports equipment. However Courtaulds's big advantage as manufacturer of the "Courtelle" precursor now became a weakness. Courtelle's low cost and ready availability were potential advantages, but the water-based inorganic process used to produce it made the product susceptible to impurities that did not affect the organic process used by other carbon-fiber manufacturers.

Nevertheless, during the 1980s Courtaulds continued to be a major supplier of carbon fiber for the sports-goods market, with Mitsubishi its main customer until a move to expand, including building a production plant in California, turned out badly. The investment did not generate the anticipated returns, leading to a decision to pull out of the area and Courtaulds ceased carbon-fiber production in 1991. Ironically the one surviving UK carbon-fiber manufacturer continued to thrive making fiber based on Courtaulds's precursor. Inverness-based RK Carbon Fibres Ltd concentrated on producing carbon fiber for industrial applications, removing the need to compete at the quality levels reached by overseas manufacturers.

During the 1960s, experimental work to find alternative raw materials led to the introduction of carbon fibers made from a petroleum pitch derived from oil processing. These fibers contained about 85% carbon and had excellent flexural strength. Also, during this period, the Japanese Government heavily supported carbon fiber development at home and several Japanese companies such as Toray, Nippon Carbon, Toho Rayon and Mitsubishi started their own development and production. As they subsequently advanced to become market leaders, companies in USA and Europe were encouraged to take up these activities as well, either through their own developments or contractual acquisition of carbon fiber knowledge. These companies included Hercules, BASF and Celanese USA and Akzo in Europe.

Since the late 1970s, further types of carbon fiber yarn entered the global market, offering higher tensile strength and higher elastic modulus. For example, T400 from Toray with a tensile strength of 4,000 MPa and M40, a modulus of 400 GPa. Intermediate carbon fibers, such as IM 600 from Toho Rayon with up to 6,000 MPa were developed. Carbon fibers from Toray, Celanese and Akzo found their way to aerospace application from secondary to primary parts first in military and later in civil aircraft as in McDonnell Douglas, Boeing and Airbus planes. By 2000 the industrial applications for highly sophisticated machine parts in middle Europe was becoming more important.

Further manufacturing capacity has been added since the year 2000. Major production plants have started up in Turkey, China and South Korea.

he global demand on carbon fiber composites was valued at roughly US$10.8 billion in 2009, which declined 8–10% from the previous year. It is expected to reach US$13.2 billion by 2012 and to increase to US$18.6 billion by 2015 with an annual growth rate of 7% or more. Strongest demands come from aircraft & aerospace, wind energy, as well as from the automotive industry[7] with optimized resin systems.[8]

Posted on

S-Glass Applications – Aerospace

Click below links for Aerospace

S-Series_High_PerfMatlsforCompositeAppls-IndustrialAerospaceDefense

GLARE_Laminate-Aerospace

933_S-2_Yarn-Aerospace

933_S-2_Roving-Aerospace

636_S-2_Yarn-Aerospace

463_S-2_Roving-Aerospace_and_Defense

449_S-2-Aerospace

Posted on

Basalt – Twisted

Reasons to twist Yarns: 

  • protection of the fiber
  • increase tensile strength
  • creating hybrid fibers with various properties
  • allow to process in various stringent conditions

.... more about twisting

Basalt fiber can be twisted. Regardless the tex count, be it 34 (150 h.y.p.p), 68 (75 h.y.p.p), 136 (34 h.y.p.p) , etc. can be twisted. When it comes to the higher dense materials, it can be come somewhat tricky but is still possible for the most part. You can also twist texturized fibers.

... more about texturizing

Typically the twist is to ease production in the following value added step.

Application Ideas: 

  • weaving
  • Braiding
  • Knit-Braiding
  • Knitting
  • Sewing Threads
Posted on

Basalt Roving

The Density:

Basalt Rovings typically start a around 270 tex (18 h.y.p.p) and can exceed 4,800 tex (1.04 h.y.p.p).

Note: tex means (grams/1,000 meter), h.y.p.p means (hundred yard per pound)

The Twist:

Rovings have a very low or mostly zero twist. For the most part, they are woven in from a creel, but they certainly can be warped, as well. In general, do not require to be slashed. .... read more about slashing here

The Filament Size:

For the most part, roving filament diameters start at 9 microns and go up to around 24 microns.

Rovings are multi-filaments and a strand consist of hundreds of single filaments.

If a manufacturer elects to make a roving based on 9 mcm, they need to have more single filaments to build up the desired density as if they were to use e.g. 18 micron. In fact, they would need half as many filaments.

The filament size largely determines the flexibility of the strand. Therefore, the choice of filament size depends on the application.

The scale of economics: 

Due to a larger micron size/ filament, the output is larger than with smaller filament sizes. For that reason, rovings can be produced cheaper than the yarns.

Assembled Rovings:

Sometimes, manufacturers assemble rovings. In this case, they first manufacturer e.g. two bobbins of 1,200 tex and then later put them together on a new bobbin and create a 2,400 tex roving.

Sizings:

Sizings are also called binders. When extruding the fiber, the manufacturer sprays a chemical on the strand of filaments which has the purpose to

  • keep the fiber flexible,
  • mechanically protect it for upcoming textile or other processes,
  • allow, enhance the adhering process with resins or coatings,
  • create other additional properties.

For that reason, it is important to make sure to verify the resin compatibility for the intended application or textile process.

TIP: When testing samples, make sure you buy from the same source, as the outcome may differ, based on the chosen source!

Posted on

Chopping Technical Fibers

Chopping Technical Fibers

Rotary Chopping: 

A very consistent way of chopping is done in a rotary process. A drum with a selected blade count, spaced out to the desired fiber length achieves a very high accuracy.

A predetermined strand count will be fed into the rotary chopping mechanism. The actual chopping is then done by the means of crushing the fiber, rather than cutting it. This is possible, due to the fact that glass fibers are brittle by nature.

By feeding multiple strands at the same time, you can mix fibers with various properties, as well. This allows for a predictive and cost effective blend of fibers with a property mix for optimal efficiency in the following application.

Doing so, blended chopped fibers allow for more cost effective solutions or to create complete new niche markets.

Guillotine Chopping: 

Guillotine Chopping is often done when recycling the waste materials come from the glass fiber manufacturer.

The input material can be “Spin-cakes” or other materials which have not passed the inspections. In order to be able to chop a cake, it is necessary to break it down in smaller pieces. This can be done with a table saw like process. After multiple additional chopping processes, the fibers may have somewhat more random lengths than resulting from a Rotary Chopping.

During the next steps, the fibers can be opened, dried and baled and sent to the next intended application as e.g.

a) mechanically bound, needled into a “Needlemat” for industrial insulation

b) chemically bound into an insulation batting for automotive or commercial or industrial use

c) used as a reinforcement product for panel making

 

Posted on

About Glass Fibers

Fiberglass is the original fiber reinforcement of modern composites. Though the ancient Phoenicians, Egyptians and Greeks knew how to melt glass and stretch it into thin fibers, it wasn’t until the 1930s that the process evolved into commercial-scale manufacturing of continuous fibers, which would later be used as structural reinforcements. Patent applications filed between 1933 and 1937 by Games Slayter, John Thomas and Dale Kleist, employees of Owens-Illinois Glass Co. (Toledo, Ohio), record the key developments that step-changed the industry from producing discontinuous-fiber glass wool to making continuous glass filaments with diameters as small as 4 microns (4 millionths of a meter) and thousands of feet long. Ensuing breakthroughs made the process commercially viable and cost-competitive.

 

The last two patents in the series, entitled “Textile Material” and “Glass Fabric,” foreshadowed the future of glass fiber as a textile reinforcement. The patents were awarded in 1938, the same year that Owens-Illinois and Corning Glass Works (Corning, N.Y.) joined to form Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. (OCF).

 

The new company marketed its glass fiber under the trade name Fiberglas, which was the genesis of the common generic reference to fiberglass. It was not long before a number of other manufacturers entered the market and, through numerous process and product innovations, contributed to a worldwide structural composite reinforcements market of roughly 4 to 5 million tons per year.

 

Source: Composite World: http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/the-making-of-glass-fiber

Following are some Glass Fibers available in the market: 

AR-Glass * C-Glass * E-Glass * ECR-Glass * L-Glass * Quartz Glass * R-Glass * S1-Glass * S2-Glass * S3-Glass * Silica Glass * Other

Manufacturing Of Glass Fibers

The glass fiber process

Textile-grade glass fibers are made from silica (SiO2) sand, which melts at 1720°C/3128°F. SiO2 is also the basic element in quartz, a naturally occurring rock. Quartz, however, is crystalline (rigid, highly ordered atomic structure) and is 99 percent or more SiO2. If SiO2 is heated above 1200°C/2192°F then cooled ambiently, it crystallizes and becomes quartz.

Glass is produced by altering the temperature and cooldown rates. If pure SiO2 is heated to 1720°C/3128°F then cooled quickly, crystallization can be prevented and the process yields the amorphous or randomly ordered atomic structure we know as glass.

Although continuously refined and improved, today’s glass fiber manufacturers combine this high heat/quick cool strategy with other steps in a process that is basically the same as that developed in the 1930s, albeit on a much larger scale. This process can be broken down into five basic steps: batching, melting, fiberization, coating and drying/packaging.

Step 1: Batching

Although a viable commercial glass fiber can be made from silica alone, other ingredients are added to reduce the working temperature and impart other properties that are useful in specific applications.

For example, E-glass, originally aimed at electrical applications, with a composition including SiO2, AI2O3(aluminum oxide or alumina), CaO (calcium oxide or lime) and MgO (magnesium oxide or magnesia), was developed as a more alkali-resistant alternative to the original soda lime glass. Later, boron was added via B2O3 (boron oxide) to increase the difference between the temperatures at which the E-glass batch melted and at which it formed a crystalline structure to prevent clogging of the nozzles used in fiberization (Step 3, below).

S-glass fibers, developed for higher strength, are based on a SiO2-AI2O3-MgO formulation but contain higher percentages of SiO2 for applications in which tensile strength is the most important property.

In the initial stage of glass manufacture, therefore, these materials must be carefully weighed in exact quantities and thoroughly mixed (batched). Batching has become automated, using computerized weighing units and enclosed material transport systems. For example, in Owens Corning’s plant in Taloja, India, each ingredient is transported via pneumatic conveyors to its designated multistory storage bin (silo), which is capable of holding 70 to 260 ft³ (1.98 to 7.36m³) of material. Directly beneath each bin is an automated weighing and feeding system, which transfers the precise amount of each ingredient to a pneumatic blender in the batch house basement.

Step 2: Melting

From the batch house, another pneumatic conveyor sends the mixture to a high temperature (≈1400ºC/2552ºF) natural gas-fired furnace for melting.

Glass Melting

The furnace is typically divided into three sections, with channels that aid glass flow.

The first section receives the batch, where melting occurs and uniformity is increased, including removal of bubbles. The molten glass then flows into the refiner, where its temperature is reduced to 1370ºC/2500ºF. The final section is the forehearth, beneath which is located a series of four to seven bushings that, in the next step, are used to extrude the molten glass into fibers. Large furnaces have several channels, each with its own forehearth.
According to Scott Northrup, global business development director for AGY (Aiken, S.C.), furnace operation is being improved on several fronts.

The use of larger furnaces has increased throughput to between 30,000 and 40,000 metric tonnes (66.2 million lb to 88.2 million lb) per year.

One of the most important advances has been digital control technology. “Digital controls … measure and manage the precise temperature of the glass as it moves through the furnace as well as the gas … and oxygen flow rates.” They also maintain a smoother, steadier flow to the fiberization equipment, avoiding air bubbles or other interruptions that could cause discontinuities in fiber formation.

Control of oxygen flow rates are crucial because furnaces that use the latest technology burn nearly pure oxygen instead of air because it helps the natural gas fuel to burn cleaner and hotter, melting glass more efficiently. It also lowers operating costs by using less energy and reduces nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 75 percent and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 40 percent.

Because the furnace is a consumable — the process of melting and moving the glass wears away the refractory bricks that line the furnace interior — efforts are being made to increase the brick’s service life.

Glass fiber production is a continuous process, says AGY sales and marketing VP Drew Walker, “Once production begins, you don’t shut it down.”

Manufacturers say that a typical furnace averages 12 to 15 years between rebuilds, with seven years as a worst-case scenario. Walker explains that at up to $150 million for construction of a new manufacturing site and $10 million to $15 million for a new furnace or rebuild, extending furnace life translates directly into dollars.

The industry takes three main approaches to glass melting:

(1) indirect melt (also called marble remelt);

(2) direct melt using larger-scale furnaces (8,000 to 100,000 metric tonnes per year); and

(3) direct melt using smaller-scale furnaces (150 to 200 metric tonnes per year), which are also called paramelters.

For indirect marble remelt, molten glass is sheared and rolled into marbles roughly 0.62 inch (15 to 16 mm) in diameter, which are cooled, packaged and then transported to a fiber manufacturing facility where they are remelted for fiberization (see “Step 3”). The marbles facilitate visual inspection of the glass for impurities, resulting in a more consistent product.

The direct melt process transfers molten glass in the furnace directly to fiber-forming equipment. Because direct melting eliminates the intermediate steps and the cost of forming marbles, it has become the most widely used method.

Step 3: Fiberization

Glass fiber formation, or fiberization, involves a combination of extrusion and attenuation.

In extrusion, the molten glass passes out of the forehearth through a bushing made of an erosion-resistant platinum/rhodium alloy with very fine orifices, from 200 to as many as 8,000. Bushing plates are heated electronically, and their temperature is precisely controlled to maintain a constant glass viscosity. Water jets cool the filaments as they exit the bushing at roughly 1204ºC/2200ºF.

Attenuation is the process of mechanically drawing the extruded streams of molten glass into fibrous elements called filaments, with a diameter ranging from 4 μm to 34 μm (one-tenth the diameter of a human hair).

A high-speed winder catches the molten streams and, because it revolves at a circumferential speed of ~2 miles/~3 km per minute (much faster than the molten glass exits the bushings), tension is applied, drawing them into thin filaments.
The bushings are expensive, and their nozzle design is critical to fiberization. Nozzle diameter determines filament diameter, and the nozzle quantity equals the number of ends.

A 4,000-nozzle bushing may be used to produce a single roving product or the process can be configured to make four rovings with 1,000 ends each. The bushing also controls the fiber yield or yards of fiber per pound of glass.

(The metric unit, tex, measures fiber linear density; 1 tex = 1 g/km, and yield is the inverse, yd/lb.) A fiber with a yield of 1,800 yd/lb (275 tex) would have a smaller diameter than a 56 yd/lb (8,890 tex) fiber, and an 800-nozzle bushing produces a smaller yield than a 4,000-nozzle bushing. This helps to explain why Wisdom Dzotsi, Americas glass business manager for OCV Reinforcements (Toledo, Ohio, a combination of the reinforcements and fabrics businesses of Owens Corning and Saint-Gobain Vetrotex), views a 4,000-nozzle bushing as the sweet spot that has evolved for optimizing production flexibility.

In contrast, AGY uses 800-orifice bushings because, as Walker explains, “We are a smaller company whose glass yarn and specialty fiber business is based on finer filaments and smaller-run niche products.”

Bushing design is advancing. Kevin Richardson, market development director for PPG Industries (Pittsburgh, Pa.) notes, “There are emerging developments in bushing design that further enhance performance via tailored filament diameters and also contribute to total furnace throughputs, lowering cost.” AGY agrees, stating that the range of fiber diameter, or micronage, has become more varied as composite reinforcements have become more specialized. Although OCV sees 17 μm and 24 μm as the most popular diameters, its reinforcement products vary from 4 μm to 32 μm, while AGY’s products typically fall in the 4 μm to 9 μm range.

Walker notes that all fiberglass manufacturers want to produce as much glass fiber per hour as possible. Advances in winding have enabled producers to triple efficiency. Walker explains, “We process more packages at once now; 20 years ago we may have used two packages where now it is common to use six.” (See “Step 5.”)

Step 4: Coating

In the final stage, a chemical coating, or size, is applied. (Although the terms binder, size and sizing often are used interchangeably in the industry, size is the correct term for the coating applied, and sizing is the process used to apply it. See “Learn More,” at right.)
Size is typically added at 0.5 to 2.0 percent by weight and may include lubricants, binders and/or coupling agents. The lubricants help to protect the filaments from abrading and breaking as they are collected and wound into forming packages and, later, when they are processed by weavers or other converters into fabrics or other reinforcement forms.

Coupling agents cause the fiber to have an affinity for a particular resin chemistry, improving resin wetout and strengthening the adhesive bond at the fiber-matrix interface.

Some size chemistries are compatible only with polyester resin and some only with epoxy while others may be used with a variety of resins.

AGY, OCV and PPG agree that size chemistry is crucial to glass fiber performance, and each company considers its size chemistry to be proprietary.

PPG believes that in many composite applications, performance can be achieved via size chemistry as effectively as, if not more than, glass batch chemistry. For example, its 2026 size chemistry used with HYBON products for wind blades reportedly achieves an order of magnitude improvement in blade fatigue life by  improving fiber wet out and fiber adhesion to all resin types.

Step 5: Drying/packaging

Finally, the drawn, sized filaments are collected together into a bundle, forming a glass strand composed of 51 to 1,624 filaments. The strand is wound onto a drum into a forming package that resembles a spool of thread. The forming packages, still wet from water cooling and sizing, are then dried in an oven, and afterward they are ready to be palletized and shipped or further processed into chopped fiber, roving or yarn.

Roving is a collection of strands with little or no twist. An assembled roving, for example, made from 10 to 15 strands wound together into a multi-end roving package, requires additional handling and processing steps.

Yarn is made from one or more strands, which may be twisted to protect the integrity of the yarn during subsequent processing operations, such as weaving.

One process, many products

Although the basic glass fiber process has changed little since its commercialization 80 years ago, it has undergone many refinements. Two continuous threads run through fiberglass manufacturing’s history: the drive to increase production throughput and bring cost down and the desire to improve the performance properties of the finished product.

Manufacturers continue to push forward on both fronts in their pursuit of ever-newer applications for fiberglass-reinforced composite.

Source: Composite World: http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/the-making-of-glass-fiber

Posted on

About Basalt Fibers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, further information about the basalt and its unique properties:

Basalt fiber is a material made from extremely fine fibers of basalt, which is composed of the minerals plagioclasepyroxene, and olivine. It is similar to carbon fiber and fiberglass, having better physical properties than fiberglass, but being significantly cheaper than carbon fiber. It is used as a fireproof textile in the aerospace and automotive industries and can also be used as a composite to produce products such as camera tripods.

Basalt fiber is made from a single material, crushed basalt, from a carefully chosen quarry source and unlike other materials such as glass fiber, essentially no materials are added. The basalt is simply washed and then melted.

The manufacture of basalt fiber requires the melting of the quarried basalt rock at about 1,400 °C (2,550 °F). The molten rock is then extruded through small nozzles to produce continuous filaments of basalt fiber.

There are three main manufacturing techniques, which are

  • centrifugal-blowing,
  • centrifugal-multi roll and
  • die-blowing

The fibers typically have a filament diameter of between 9 and 13 µm which is far enough above the respiratory limit of 5 µm to make basalt fiber a suitable replacement for asbestos. They also have a high elastic modulus, resulting in excellent specific tenacity—three times that of steel.

Property Value
Tensile strength 4.84 GPa
Elastic modulus 89 GPa
Elongation at break 3.15%
Density 2.7 g/cm³

Outstanding Properties of Basalt Fibers: 

• High tensile strength
• Alkali resistant
• High thermal conductivity
• No carcinogenic risk or other health hazards
• Completely inert with no environmental risks
• Resistant to acids and aggressive chemicals
• High E modulus resulting in excellent specific tenacity, three times that of steel fiber
• Good fatigue resistance
• Electro-magnetic resistant

Posted on

Comparison Of Various Fibers

 Comparison of various Fibers. 

Please know, these values represent an approximate average in the industry.

The chemical compositions and with it the mechancial properties vary by vendor.

Material Density (g/cm³) Tensile strength (GPa) Elastic modulus (GPa)
Steel re-bar 7.85 0.5 210
A-glass 2.46 3.31 69
C-glass 2.46 3.31 69
E-glass 2.6 3.45 76
S-2 glass 2.49 4.83 97
Silicon 2.16 0.206-0.412 -
Quartz 2.2 0.3438 -
Carbon fiber (large) 1.74 3.62 228
Carbon fiber (medium) 1.8 5.1 241
Carbon fiber (small) 1.8 6.21 297
Kevlar K-29 1.44 3.62 41.4
Kevlar K-149 1.47 3.48 -
Polypropylene 0.91 0.27-0.65 38
Polyacrylonit 1.18 0.50-0.91 75
Basalt fiber 2.65 4.15-4.80 100-110

 

Posted on

Basalt Chopped Fibers

Basalt Chopped Fibers in general can be applied where E-Glass, sometimes S-Glass or Carbon Fibers can be used, as well.

.... more about the chopping process itself

As Basalt is more expensive than E-Glass, but cheaper than Carbon Fibers or S-Glass Fibers, it typically finds implementations, more suitable to its particular properties and fills an important gab when it comes to cost-performance ratios.

You can find a comparison to E-Glass, S-Glass or other materials by clicking here: Basic comparison to other fibers.

Knowing how Basalt compares to other fibers allow to precisely engineer an optimal solution, which could also be in form of a hybrid (combining Basalt with other Fibers made from Glass, Carbon, Kevlar, etc.)

 

An Example of an Engineered FRP. 

In Fiber Reinforcement Products (FRP) the engineer chooses the fiber, based on the desired outcome. E.g. if lighter weight requirements at identical strength to currently used fibers are required or if higher strengths are necessary while staying within the weight specifications.

There are other examples relevant to durability, corrosion resistances, break strength, chemical resistances, thermal applications, etc.

Our Team will be more than glad to assist or consult with design applications.

 

Applications: 

  • Leisure Industry (boats, surfboards, skateboards, etc)
  • Construction – reinforcements (asphalt, concrete)
  • Refractory – reinforcements (cermaic, microporous, other)
  • Processed into a Chopped Strand Mat
  • Processed into a Felt, Needled or acryclic bound like papers
  • Processed into a Phenolic Board
  • Thermal Insulation as filler material

Length: From 3mm (1/8 inch) up to 90mm (3.54 inch) are typical.

Filament diameter: From 13 micron up to 16 micron are standards

Chopped fibers can vary in looks when they are cut. Some distribute much more evenly others are staying together more like a strand; the choice depends on the application.

Posted on

S2-Glass Chopped Fibers

Style S2-Glass Chopped Fibers

Description:      

S2-Glass Chopped fibers are designed for reinforcement applications.

With a tensile modulus of up to 90 GPa, S2-Glass represents the highest value in the Glass fiber family. This allows for larger panels at the same weight or reduced weight at same panel dimensions.
50% higher tensile strength than E-Glass yarns allow for higher loadings.

10 x higher fatigue properties increase reliability of the end product.

Physical Properties:

Filament Diameter (mcm)                   9

Density (y.p.p.)                                   250

Seizing                                                463, Expoxy Polyester, prepreg Compatible

Length (inch)                                      ¼”, ½”, ¾”, 1”

Strand Tensile Strength (MPa)       3569 - 3677

Strand Tensile Modulus (GPa)       87 - 90

Bulk Glass Density (lb/cu.in.)         0.090

Glass Fiber Density (lb/cu.in.)        0.089

Softening Point (degrees F)            1933

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

(x10(-7) Degrees F)                           16

Boron Free

Recommended Uses:                

Blade Spar * Spall Liner * Pressure Tanks * Ballistic * High Temperature Reinforcements * Muffler * Flooring * Cargo Liners * Timing Belts * Metal Matrix Composites * Other

Please ask our experienced Technical Sales for detailed information or for new developments.

We appreciate your consideration!

For your convenience, click here for the appropriate MSDS: MSDS-Glass