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Basalt Mesh Fabrics

Mesh Fabric, made from Basalt fiber

As its preferred use is in outdoor applications, it is also considered to be a Geotextile.

Technically, not all meshes are woven; the first picture is a leno woven, but picture two, three & five are not woven;

Following advantages make this product superior over an E-Glass Mesh: 

  • Ecologically safe
  • Withstands very high temperature of molten asphalt
  • Very high strength and durability
  • Alkali-resistant and chemically inert
  • Corrosion-resistant
  • Will not damage tires if exposed to road surface
  • 2.7 times lighter than metallic mesh, for easier handling and reduced transport costs
  • Up to 47% increase in asphalt surface life on roads and highways.

Basalt Geo-Mesh is also ideal for soil and embankment stabilization and land-fill coverings, due to its high strength and environmental and ecological safety.

Meshes can be offered with and without resin coatings.

Standard constructions:

5mm x 5mm (1/4″ x 1/4″) squares

10mm x 10 mm (3/8″ x 3/8″) squares

25mm x 25 mm (1″ x 1″) squares

50mm x 50 mm (2″ x 2″) squares

Additional Technical information:

Technical Data Sheet

Basalt Meshes

Window Sizes 5mm, 10mm, 25mm, 50mm

 

Window Size 5mm 10mm 25mm 50mm
Total Weight/ Area 220 grams/sq. meter 110 grams/sq. meter 350 grams/sq. meter 370 grams/sq. meter
6.5oz./sq. yard 3.85oz./sq. yard 10.26oz./ sq. yard 10.85oz./ sq. yard
Weight Resin Coating 20 grams/sq. meter 10 grams/sq. meter 36 grams/sq. meter 38 grams/sq. meter
0.7oz./sq. yard 0.35oz./sq. yard 1.3oz./sq. yard 1.35oz./sq. yard
Thickness 0.6-0.7 mm 0.6-0.7 mm .08-.09 mm .08-.09 mm
0.021-0.025 in. 0.021-0.025 in. 0.032-0.035 in. 0.032-0.035 in.
Maximum Load-Warp 48,000N/meter 24,000N/meter 80,780N/meter 114,000N/meter
3,290lb. force/ foot 1,645lb. force/ foot 8,483lb. force/ foot 7,813lb. force/ foot
Maximum Load-Weft 45,000N/meter 20,000N/meter 78,900N/meter 86,000N/meter
3,084lb. force/ foot 1,371lb. force/ foot 5,415lb. force/ foot 5,894lb. force/ foot
Elongation at break-Warp 6.67 % 6.67 % 6.67 % 6.67 %
Elongation at break-Weft 3.53 % 3.53 % 3.53 % 3.53 %
Breaking Elongation-Warp 13.54 mm 13.34 mm 13.34 mm 13.34 mm
0.53 inch 0.53 inch 0.53 inch 0.53 inch
Breaking Elongation-Weft 7.07 mm 7.07 mm 7.07 mm 7.07 mm
0.28 inch 0.28 inch 0.28 inch 0.28 inch
Standard Roll Dimensions 1 meter x50 meters 1 meter x50 meters 1 meter x50 meters 1 meter x50 meters
3.28 ft. x 164 ft. 3.28 ft. x 164 ft. 3.28 ft. x 164 ft. 3.28 ft. x 164 ft.

Different widths and roll lengths available on special order

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Carbon Fiber – Applications

AEROSPACE

Rising fuel costs, environmental regulations and an increase in airline traffic have helped drive the increasing use of composite materials in the aerospace industry. Composites are used in military, business and commercial aircraft of all sizes, including spacecraft.

ARCHITECTURE

The architecture community is experiencing substantial growth in the understanding and use of composites. Composites offer architects and designers performance and value in large-scale projects and their use is increasing in commercial and residential buildings.

AUTOMOTIVE

The automotive industry is no stranger to composites. In addition to enabling groundbreaking vehicle designs, composites are also being used to reduce vehicle weight and cut CO2 emissions.

ENERGY

New advancements in composites are redefining the energy industry. Composites help enable the use of wind and solar power and improve the efficiency of traditional energy suppliers.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Composites are used all over the world to help construct and repair a wide variety of infrastructure applications, from buildings and bridges to roads to and railways.

MARINE

The marine industry has experienced a steady rise in the use of composites. In addition to helping hulls be lighter and more damage-resistant, composites can be found in many more areas of a maritime vessel–from interior moldings to furniture on super yachts.

MILITARY

Military-grade composites are used in a number of applications for their low weight, long life and ability to help protect people and equipment from harm. Aerial drones, armored fighting vehicles, submarines and body armor can contain composites materials.

SPORTS & RECREATION

From football helmets to hockey sticks to kayaks to bobsleds, composite materials help athletes reach their highest performance capabilities and provide durable, lightweight equipment for weekend warriors.

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Application – Basalt Wovens

Basalt-Wovens

Basalt Standard Fabrics in general can be applied where E-Glass, sometimes S-Glass or Carbon Fabrics can be used, as well. As Basalt is more expensive than E-Glass, but cheaper than Carbon Fibers, typically it finds implementations, more suitable to its particular properties and fills an important gab when it comes to cost-performance ratios.

You can find a comparison to E-Glass, S-Glass or other materials by clicking here: Basic Comparison To Other Fibers.

Knowing how Basalt compares to other fibers allow to precisely engineer an optimal solution, which could also be in form of a hybrid (combining Basalt with other Fibers made from Glass, Carbon, Kevlar, etc.)

An Example of an Engineered FRP. 

In Fiber Reinforced Products (FRP) the engineer chooses the fiber, based on the desired outcome. E.g. if lighter weight requirements at identical strength to currently used fibers are required or if higher strengths are necessary while staying within the weight specifications.

There are other examples relevant to durability, corrosion resistances, break strength, chemical resistances, thermal applications, etc.

Our Team will be more than glad to assist or consult with design applications.

Standard Fabrics

Main application markets are

  • Geotextiles
  • Thermal applications
  • FRP (Fiber Reinforcement Products)

Standard offering: 

Weights: 3.2 oz/syd – 28 oz/syd

Widths: 19″ – 54″

Length: 26 yd – 500 yd

 OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA  OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA   mesh1

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Basalt – Twisted

Reasons to twist Yarns: 

  • protection of the fiber
  • increase tensile strength
  • creating hybrid fibers with various properties
  • allow to process in various stringent conditions

.... more about twisting

Basalt fiber can be twisted. Regardless the tex count, be it 34 (150 h.y.p.p), 68 (75 h.y.p.p), 136 (34 h.y.p.p) , etc. can be twisted. When it comes to the higher dense materials, it can be come somewhat tricky but is still possible for the most part. You can also twist texturized fibers.

... more about texturizing

Typically the twist is to ease production in the following value added step.

Application Ideas: 

  • weaving
  • Braiding
  • Knit-Braiding
  • Knitting
  • Sewing Threads
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Basalt – Air texturized

Basalt fibers can be air-texturized

... more about the process of air-texturizing

Texturizing Basalt can be interesting from many points of views:

  • The texturizing process allows to blend basalt with other technical fibers, such as E-Glass, S-Glass, Carbon, Kevlar, etc. Those then can be woven, braided, knitted, chopped, etc.
  • The fiber becomes more bulky and can store more air between the filaments. This increases the insulation values
  • Texturized fabrics, braids, knitted goods etc, have increased abrasion resistances
  • In composite applications, it may alter the dry-time or wet-out time.

In many cases, the texturized basalt fiber will experience additional value added steps, therefore the

Aapplication ideas are: 

  • chopping
  • extrusion
  • braiding
  • knitting
  • knit braiding
  • twisting
  • weaving

 

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Basalt Roving

The Density:

Basalt Rovings typically start a around 270 tex (18 h.y.p.p) and can exceed 4,800 tex (1.04 h.y.p.p).

Note: tex means (grams/1,000 meter), h.y.p.p means (hundred yard per pound)

The Twist:

Rovings have a very low or mostly zero twist. For the most part, they are woven in from a creel, but they certainly can be warped, as well. In general, do not require to be slashed. .... read more about slashing here

The Filament Size:

For the most part, roving filament diameters start at 9 microns and go up to around 24 microns.

Rovings are multi-filaments and a strand consist of hundreds of single filaments.

If a manufacturer elects to make a roving based on 9 mcm, they need to have more single filaments to build up the desired density as if they were to use e.g. 18 micron. In fact, they would need half as many filaments.

The filament size largely determines the flexibility of the strand. Therefore, the choice of filament size depends on the application.

The scale of economics: 

Due to a larger micron size/ filament, the output is larger than with smaller filament sizes. For that reason, rovings can be produced cheaper than the yarns.

Assembled Rovings:

Sometimes, manufacturers assemble rovings. In this case, they first manufacturer e.g. two bobbins of 1,200 tex and then later put them together on a new bobbin and create a 2,400 tex roving.

Sizings:

Sizings are also called binders. When extruding the fiber, the manufacturer sprays a chemical on the strand of filaments which has the purpose to

  • keep the fiber flexible,
  • mechanically protect it for upcoming textile or other processes,
  • allow, enhance the adhering process with resins or coatings,
  • create other additional properties.

For that reason, it is important to make sure to verify the resin compatibility for the intended application or textile process.

TIP: When testing samples, make sure you buy from the same source, as the outcome may differ, based on the chosen source!

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Textile Process: Weaving, Slashing, Warping

The process in brief:

In weaving cloth, the warp is the set of lengthwise yarns that are held in tension on a frame or loom. The yarn that is inserted over-and-under the warp threads is called the weft, woof, or filler. Each individual warp thread in a fabric is called a warp end or end. Warp means “that which is thrown across” (OldEnglish wearp, from weorpan, to throw, cf.German werfenDutch werpen).

Very simple looms use a spiral warp, in which a single, very long yarn is wound around a pair of sticks or beams in a spiral pattern to make up the warp.

Because the warp is held under high tension during the entire process of weaving and warp yarn must be strong, yarn for warp ends is usually spun and plied fiber. Traditional fibers for warping are woollinenalpaca, and silk. With the improvements in spinning technology during the Industrial Revolution, it became possible to make cotton yarn of sufficient strength to be used as the warp in mechanized weaving. Later, artificial or man-made fibers such as nylon rayon or glass fibers were employed.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warp_(weaving)

In Glass Fiber weaving, the most common weave patterns are

  • Basket Weave
  • Plain Weave
  • Satin Weave
  • Twill & Broken Twill Weave

 Basket Weave:

In Basket weave or Panama weave, groups of warp and weft threads are interlaced so that they form a simple criss-cross pattern. Each group of weft threads crosses an equal number of warp threads by going over one group, then under the next, and so on. The next group of weft threads goes under the warp threads that its neighbor went over, and vice versa.

Basketweave can be identified by its checkerboard-like appearance made of two or more threads in each group.

Basketsweave

Plain Weave:

Schematic of a plain weave, which would be woven by a shuttle loom (left).

The right schematic represents the modern Plain weave, as the fiber is not anymore continuous throughout multiple sheddings, but it is cut after each shedding takes place.

Warp_and_weftPlainWeave

Allthough shuttle looms are still in use mostly for narrow fabrics, they have been widely replaced by other, more efficient weaving technology:

Airjet Weaving * Projectile Weaving * Rapier Loom Weaving * Waterjet weaving.

 Satin Weave:

The satin weave is characterized by four or more fill or weft yarns floating over a warp yarn or vice versa, four warp yarns floating over a single weft yarn. Floats are missed interfacings, where the warp yarn lies on top of the weft in a warp-faced satin and where the weft yarn lies on top of the warp yarns in weft-faced satins. These floats explain the even sheen, as unlike in other weaves, the light reflecting is not scattered as much by the fibres, which have fewer tucks.

In glass fiber weaving, satin fabrics are popular when high drape ability is required. If the fabric has to be layed around corner or edges.

This Schematic also shows a traditional shuttle loom woven Satin Pattern.

Satin_weave_in_silk

 Twill Weave:

Twill fabrics technically have a front and a back side, unlike plain weave, whose two sides are the same. The front side of the twill is the technical face; the back is called the technical back. The technical face side of a twill weave fabric is the side with the most pronounced wale; it is usually more durable, more attractive, most often used as the fashion side of the fabric, and the side visible during weaving. If there are warp floats on the technical face (i.e., if the warp crosses over two or more wefts), there will be filling floats (the weft will cross over two or more warps) on the technical back. If the twill wale goes up to the right on one side, it will go up to the left on the other side. Twill fabrics have no up and down as they are woven.

The fewer interlacings in twills allow the yarns to move more freely, and thus they are softer, more pliable, and drape better than plain-weave textiles. Twills also recover from wrinkles better than plain-weave fabrics do. When there are fewer interlacings, yarns can be packed closer together to produce high-count fabrics. In twills and higher counts, the fabric is more durable.

Schematic of Twill Woven Fabric:

TwillWeave

Weaving Glass Fibers:

Due to the low elongation coefficient (% of stretch before it breaks) of approx. 2.0 – 3.5 %, weaving Glass Fibers require very precise machine adjustments. It becomes a little simpler when the yarns have been texturized, as the extra bulk in essence increases the elongation coefficient by the grade of texture.

Due to the “brittle” nature of glass fibers, the finer yarns require preparation to withstand the harsh friction caused by the reed. This preparation is called Slashing.

Slashing: 

While Roving or texturized yarns typically do not need any special additional treatment of seizing, the finer yarns typically do.

Slashing is a process in which the strand will be applied an additional seizing, aiding the weaving process. Without this additional seizing, the yarn in the warp will be starting to create “fuzz” from broken filaments. This is due to the reed rupturing the warp strands. The fuzz in return will influence the shedding behavior of the neighboring fibers. This may cause those fibers not to clearly separate from each other, when the shedding takes place. This will result in either a simple miss pick or in a complete yarn breakage in the warp.

The slashing typically handles two production steps in one;

a) application of the required additional seizing

b) warping the strands to a loom beam. (Note:Slashing can also be offered on a “bobbin-to-bobbin”-process, as well.)

In case of slashed bobbins, a second process will have to take place, which is called warping.

Warping: 

Warping is the process in which single strands of fibers (yarns) will be wound to a beam which is called a loombeam. This loombeam can then be either attached or connected to the weaving loom or put on a separate A-Phrame construction.

Depending on the desired weave construction, at times, two loombeams can be implemented. In that case, a top beam stand is mounted to the machine, holding the second beam.

There are three basic Warping Techniques:

a) Sample Warping

Sample Warping is typically for around 30 yards or under 100 yards, as needed, just for weaving samples. Other lengths apply, but in essence it is meant for short runs.

b) Sectional Warping

A Sectional Warper draws e.g. 200 single ends at a time and winds it to a loombeam. This is then called a section. After the desired quantity has been wound, e.g. 5,000 yards, the second section will be applied with the same yard count. In order to do so, the warper will be moved a small distance on a rail system, to be centered again in front of the next section. This process will be repeated, until the desired total end count has been reached.

C) Direct Warping

A Direct Warper draws all the required strands at one time and applies the desired quantity of yards in this one process. Therefore, while Sectional Warping and Direct Warping both result in the same end count with the desired max quantity per strand, the sectional warping process calls for multiple production steps, while the Direct Warper produces it in one production step.

The choice of the correct warping system depends on the mill’s setup.

Caution with warping, as glass fiber has a very low elongation coefficient, precise machine adjustments and tension systems are required.

Creel Weaving: 

More dense or heavier yarns, around 270 tex and up, are preferably woven on creels.

Two basic creel designs:

a) Pin Creel

Here, the bobbin is stuck on a pin.

B) Shelf Creel

Here the bobbin stands on a shelf.

While there are many different designs of pin creels or shelf creels, it appears that the shelf creel provides more flexibility, as some glass fiber manufacturers provide rovings for inside and some for outside unwinding. Rovings with inside unwinding cannot be used for pin creels.

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Textile Process: Knitting

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Demonstration of knitting and basic stitches

Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric.

Knitting creates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches, in a line or tube. Knitting has multiple active stitches on the needle at one time. Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive rows of interlocking loops. As each row progresses, a newly created loop is pulled through one or more loops from the prior row, placed on the gaining needle, and the loops from the prior row are then pulled off the other needle.

Knitting may be done by hand or by using a machine.

Different types of yarns (fibre type, texture, and twist), needle sizes, and stitch types may be used to achieve knitted fabrics with diverse properties (colour, texture, weight, heat retention, water resistance, and/or integrity).


 

Like glass-fibers, basalt-fibers can be knitted. Knitted fabrics are typically more flexible to the touch. This means they can be draped easier. That can  be an advantage in composite applications, when the knitted good needs to be draped around corners or curves. Knitted materials can be very tight and thick, as well. This could be interesting for conveyor belt applications, especially those which are dealing with elevated temperatures. The longevity of basalt knitted belts can be higher than glass-knitted belts.

Application Ideas:

  • Gaskets
  • Conveyor belts
  • Composites
  • Filtration
  • Pipe wrapping
  • Boats building
  • Leisure in general
  • Tanks
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Basalt Application – Insulation System

PyroProtecto Insuljack-1600 is built in multiple layers.

Insuljack-1600 pushes higher temperature applications and presents in its constructions a very safe, clean and cost effective solution.

PyroProtecto-1600 is a 3-layer Insulation system:

a) Silicone coated fiberglass

  • Silicone temperature rating: 500 degrees F
  • Glass fabric substrate rating: 900 degrees F

b) E-Glass Needle Punched Mat

  • temperature rating: 1,200 degrees F
  • Thickness : 1/4″, 1/2″, 1″
  • Width: 60″

c) Basalt Needle Punched Mat 

  • temperature rating: 1600 degrees F
  • Thickness : 1/4″, 1/2″, 1″
  • Width: 60″

Below  pictures represent a typical example of building up the three layers;

The fabric will be on the outside, encapsulating the insulation and protecting it from outside temperatures or moisture or other impact.

The second Layer is the Glass needle punched mat, breaking the heat down from max 1,200 degrees, to the desired temperature rating.

The third layer is the Basalt needle punched mat. Its purpose is to break down the heat from max. 1,600 degrees F to approx. 1,200 degrees F, where the more affordable Glass mat takes over, to further lower temperature levels.

Note: For flat applications, we can also offer a Basalt Board, which sometimes is easier to handle; e.g. it can be pinned to the Heat source’s outer surface area.

Depending on the actual application, the engineer calculates the required insulation values (K-values at high temperatures or R-Values for low & cryogenic applications). Based on those values, the optimal configuration or insulation system can be put together.

This procedure not only results in best insulation values, but also prevents from insulating at higher cost than necessary.

The E-Glass needled mat and the Basalt needled mat can be delivered in various densities and thicknesses.

Please contact us with your particular applications. We will be glad to assist. 

 

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Basalt Application – Geotextiles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. Typically made from polypropylene or polyester, geotextile fabrics come in three basic forms: woven (resembling mail bag sacking), needle punched (resembling felt), or heat bonded (resembling ironed felt).

Geotextile composites have been introduced and products such as geogrids and meshes have been developed. Overall, these materials are referred to as geosynthetics and each configuration—-geonets, geogrids, geotubes (such as TITANTubes) and others—-can yield benefits in geotechnical and environmental engineering design.[1]


Basalt does not rot and therefore presents a highly stable solution for outdoor applications or when exposed to harsh weather conditions.

Depending on the application and desired functionalities, the design needs to vary.

Required functionalities:

  • Moisture barrier (for contamination prevention e.g. recycling places, junk yards, landfill, etc)
  • Erosion prevention (e.g. in the mountains or specialty farming)
  • Constructional support (e.g. light weight roof in stadiums)
  • Fire or Flame barrier

 

There are many applications for Basalt in form of strand, chopped, woven, nonwoven, composites etc.

 

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Basalt Application – FRP Reinforced Polymer

FRP- (Fiber Reinforced Polymer)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) (also fibre-reinforced polymer) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon,aramid, or basalt. Rarely, other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been used. The polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester or polyesterthermosetting plastic, andphenol formaldehyde resins are still in use.

FRPs are commonly used in the aerospace, automotive, marine, construction industries and ballistic armor.


In the case of Basalt, sometimes BFRP or BRP is also used as an acronym.

Applications: 

Simple: In essence, anywhere glass, carbon or other fibers are used.

In some instances Basalt may exceed performances of existing products, in others, it may be an acceptable alternative at lower cost; the application engineer is challenged with a balance between performance, weight and cost of the final product.

In the USA, basalt is tried or already in use in almost all applications where glass or carbon or aramid is used, but in much smaller quantities and variations.

Few Examples: 

  • Boat
  • Automotive
  • Leisure (snowbords, kiteboards, ski, race boats...)
  • Concrete
  • Ballistic
  • much more

It also appears that European and Asian countries are further along in their development utilizing basalt for niche applications or as a new and "green" alternative.

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Basalt Application – Construction

Highlights: 

  • Higher specific strength
  • Approx. 10% of Basalt Rebar needed to achieve the same results as with Steel Rebars
  • Resistant to corrosion or deterioration caused by natural elements
  • Alkaline and acide resistant
  • Same thermal expansion as concrete, reducing the formation of cracks

Basalt Rebar

  • Concrete
  • Highway
  • Construction

Basalt Mesh

  • Highways
  • Roofing
  • Stucco

Basalt Fabric

  • Bridges
  • Composite Poles

Basalt Chopped Fiber

  • Concrete
  • Highway
  • Composite Poles/ constructions in general