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Basalt – CNC

Basalt-CNC

Given the right form, basalt can be also machined with CNC equipment.

The picture illustrates a basalt board which we asked to get machined in a shop in USA.

This allows for a lot more applications and to venture into completely new markets.

E.g. Gaskets for motors, appliances, doors, ovens, or for  insulation of pipes, just to mention a few.

The board we offer can certainly also be dye-cut or cut with a "box cutter".

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About Multi Axial Fabrics

Multi-Axial Fabrics consists of a numerous amount of layers stitched together.

Each single layer may be of a different, individual construction, whereas it can be a woven fabric, a unidirectional fabric or any other version. The choice of materials may be different. E.g. it could be a combination of Glass & Basalt, or Carbon & Kevlar & Glass.

In Multi-Axial Fabrics, often the manufacturer takes advantage of positioning the layers of fabric to where the main fiber direction points into a different angle to the previous or the following layer.

This allows for optimal utilization of the fiber properties, in most cases the strength requirements.

Following graph illustrates one example of a Muli-Axial Fabric:

3

 

A four layer Multi-Axial Fabric would be called a Quadraxial fabric. it Can have the main fiber direction of the layers point in 3 or four different directions (degrees).

2

 

The following graph illustrates the necessary stitching-assembly process.

1

Curtesy of netcomposites.com

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Carbon Fiber – Applications

AEROSPACE

Rising fuel costs, environmental regulations and an increase in airline traffic have helped drive the increasing use of composite materials in the aerospace industry. Composites are used in military, business and commercial aircraft of all sizes, including spacecraft.

ARCHITECTURE

The architecture community is experiencing substantial growth in the understanding and use of composites. Composites offer architects and designers performance and value in large-scale projects and their use is increasing in commercial and residential buildings.

AUTOMOTIVE

The automotive industry is no stranger to composites. In addition to enabling groundbreaking vehicle designs, composites are also being used to reduce vehicle weight and cut CO2 emissions.

ENERGY

New advancements in composites are redefining the energy industry. Composites help enable the use of wind and solar power and improve the efficiency of traditional energy suppliers.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Composites are used all over the world to help construct and repair a wide variety of infrastructure applications, from buildings and bridges to roads to and railways.

MARINE

The marine industry has experienced a steady rise in the use of composites. In addition to helping hulls be lighter and more damage-resistant, composites can be found in many more areas of a maritime vessel–from interior moldings to furniture on super yachts.

MILITARY

Military-grade composites are used in a number of applications for their low weight, long life and ability to help protect people and equipment from harm. Aerial drones, armored fighting vehicles, submarines and body armor can contain composites materials.

SPORTS & RECREATION

From football helmets to hockey sticks to kayaks to bobsleds, composite materials help athletes reach their highest performance capabilities and provide durable, lightweight equipment for weekend warriors.

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About Carbon Fibers

Source: Wikipedia

Carbon fibers or carbon fibres (alternatively CF, graphite fiber or graphite fibre) are fibers about 5–10 micrometres in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms.

To produce a carbon fiber, the carbon atoms are bonded together in crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber as the crystal alignment gives the fiber high strength-to-volume ratio (making it strong for its size). Several thousand carbon fibers are bundled together to form a tow, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric.

The properties of carbon fibers, such as high stiffness, high tensile strength, low weight, high chemical resistance, high temperature tolerance and low thermal expansion, make them very popular in aerospace, civil engineering, military, and motorsports, along with other competition sports. However, they are relatively expensive when compared with similar fibers, such as glass fibers or plastic fibers.

Carbon fibers are usually combined with other materials to form a composite. When combined with a plastic resin and wound or molded it forms carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (often referred to as carbon fiber) which has a very high strength-to-weight ratio, and is extremely rigid although somewhat brittle. However, carbon fibers are also composited with other materials, such as graphite, to form carbon-carbon composites, which have a very high heat tolerance.

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S2-Glass General Information

S2-Glass is manufactured by AGY in the USA. The fiber has been designed to increase compressive strength, tensile strength, impact resistance and temperature resistances.

This site focuses on S2-Glass and it compares it with close alternatives.

Click below links for general information

Fiberglas Production

AGY_Technical_Product_Guide-Revised

S-Series Flyer

Advanced_Materials_Brochure-Technical

SynergisticRolesofHighStrengthGlass-Technical

S2_Glass_Fibers-Technical

Mechanical_Properties_of_Polymeric_Composites-Technical

High_Strength_Glass_Fibers-Technical

Glass Properties Comparison

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Application – Basalt Wovens

Basalt-Wovens

Basalt Standard Fabrics in general can be applied where E-Glass, sometimes S-Glass or Carbon Fabrics can be used, as well. As Basalt is more expensive than E-Glass, but cheaper than Carbon Fibers, typically it finds implementations, more suitable to its particular properties and fills an important gab when it comes to cost-performance ratios.

You can find a comparison to E-Glass, S-Glass or other materials by clicking here: Basic Comparison To Other Fibers.

Knowing how Basalt compares to other fibers allow to precisely engineer an optimal solution, which could also be in form of a hybrid (combining Basalt with other Fibers made from Glass, Carbon, Kevlar, etc.)

An Example of an Engineered FRP. 

In Fiber Reinforced Products (FRP) the engineer chooses the fiber, based on the desired outcome. E.g. if lighter weight requirements at identical strength to currently used fibers are required or if higher strengths are necessary while staying within the weight specifications.

There are other examples relevant to durability, corrosion resistances, break strength, chemical resistances, thermal applications, etc.

Our Team will be more than glad to assist or consult with design applications.

Standard Fabrics

Main application markets are

  • Geotextiles
  • Thermal applications
  • FRP (Fiber Reinforcement Products)

Standard offering: 

Weights: 3.2 oz/syd – 28 oz/syd

Widths: 19″ – 54″

Length: 26 yd – 500 yd

 OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA  OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA   mesh1

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Definition Chopped Strand Mat

Example Basalt Chopped Strand Mat:

Basalt Chopped Strand Mat in general can be applied where E-Glass, sometimes S-Glass or Carbon Fibers can be used, as well. As Basalt is more expensive than E-Glass, but cheaper than Carbon Fibers, typically it finds implementations, more suitable to its particular properties and fills an important gab when it comes to cost-performance ratios.

You can find a comparison to E-Glass, S-Glass or other materials by clicking here: Basic Comparison To Other Fibers.

Knowing how Basalt compares to other fibers allow to precisely engineer an optimal solution, which could also be in form of a hybrid (combining Basalt with other Fibers made from Glass, Carbon, Kevlar, etc.)

An Example of an Engineered FRP. 

In Fiber Reinforcement Products (FRP) the engineer chooses the fiber, based on the desired outcome. E.g. if lighter weight requirements at identical strength to currently used fibers are required or if higher strengths are necessary while staying within the weight specifications.

There are other examples relevant to durability, corrosion resistances, break strength, chemical resistances, thermal applications, etc.

Applications: 

  • surfboards
  • boats
  • vessels
  • pipes
  • containers
  • panels

 

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

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Basalt Roving

The Density:

Basalt Rovings typically start a around 270 tex (18 h.y.p.p) and can exceed 4,800 tex (1.04 h.y.p.p).

Note: tex means (grams/1,000 meter), h.y.p.p means (hundred yard per pound)

The Twist:

Rovings have a very low or mostly zero twist. For the most part, they are woven in from a creel, but they certainly can be warped, as well. In general, do not require to be slashed. .... read more about slashing here

The Filament Size:

For the most part, roving filament diameters start at 9 microns and go up to around 24 microns.

Rovings are multi-filaments and a strand consist of hundreds of single filaments.

If a manufacturer elects to make a roving based on 9 mcm, they need to have more single filaments to build up the desired density as if they were to use e.g. 18 micron. In fact, they would need half as many filaments.

The filament size largely determines the flexibility of the strand. Therefore, the choice of filament size depends on the application.

The scale of economics: 

Due to a larger micron size/ filament, the output is larger than with smaller filament sizes. For that reason, rovings can be produced cheaper than the yarns.

Assembled Rovings:

Sometimes, manufacturers assemble rovings. In this case, they first manufacturer e.g. two bobbins of 1,200 tex and then later put them together on a new bobbin and create a 2,400 tex roving.

Sizings:

Sizings are also called binders. When extruding the fiber, the manufacturer sprays a chemical on the strand of filaments which has the purpose to

  • keep the fiber flexible,
  • mechanically protect it for upcoming textile or other processes,
  • allow, enhance the adhering process with resins or coatings,
  • create other additional properties.

For that reason, it is important to make sure to verify the resin compatibility for the intended application or textile process.

TIP: When testing samples, make sure you buy from the same source, as the outcome may differ, based on the chosen source!

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Textile Process: Weaving, Slashing, Warping

The process in brief:

In weaving cloth, the warp is the set of lengthwise yarns that are held in tension on a frame or loom. The yarn that is inserted over-and-under the warp threads is called the weft, woof, or filler. Each individual warp thread in a fabric is called a warp end or end. Warp means “that which is thrown across” (OldEnglish wearp, from weorpan, to throw, cf.German werfenDutch werpen).

Very simple looms use a spiral warp, in which a single, very long yarn is wound around a pair of sticks or beams in a spiral pattern to make up the warp.

Because the warp is held under high tension during the entire process of weaving and warp yarn must be strong, yarn for warp ends is usually spun and plied fiber. Traditional fibers for warping are woollinenalpaca, and silk. With the improvements in spinning technology during the Industrial Revolution, it became possible to make cotton yarn of sufficient strength to be used as the warp in mechanized weaving. Later, artificial or man-made fibers such as nylon rayon or glass fibers were employed.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warp_(weaving)

In Glass Fiber weaving, the most common weave patterns are

  • Basket Weave
  • Plain Weave
  • Satin Weave
  • Twill & Broken Twill Weave

 Basket Weave:

In Basket weave or Panama weave, groups of warp and weft threads are interlaced so that they form a simple criss-cross pattern. Each group of weft threads crosses an equal number of warp threads by going over one group, then under the next, and so on. The next group of weft threads goes under the warp threads that its neighbor went over, and vice versa.

Basketweave can be identified by its checkerboard-like appearance made of two or more threads in each group.

Basketsweave

Plain Weave:

Schematic of a plain weave, which would be woven by a shuttle loom (left).

The right schematic represents the modern Plain weave, as the fiber is not anymore continuous throughout multiple sheddings, but it is cut after each shedding takes place.

Warp_and_weftPlainWeave

Allthough shuttle looms are still in use mostly for narrow fabrics, they have been widely replaced by other, more efficient weaving technology:

Airjet Weaving * Projectile Weaving * Rapier Loom Weaving * Waterjet weaving.

 Satin Weave:

The satin weave is characterized by four or more fill or weft yarns floating over a warp yarn or vice versa, four warp yarns floating over a single weft yarn. Floats are missed interfacings, where the warp yarn lies on top of the weft in a warp-faced satin and where the weft yarn lies on top of the warp yarns in weft-faced satins. These floats explain the even sheen, as unlike in other weaves, the light reflecting is not scattered as much by the fibres, which have fewer tucks.

In glass fiber weaving, satin fabrics are popular when high drape ability is required. If the fabric has to be layed around corner or edges.

This Schematic also shows a traditional shuttle loom woven Satin Pattern.

Satin_weave_in_silk

 Twill Weave:

Twill fabrics technically have a front and a back side, unlike plain weave, whose two sides are the same. The front side of the twill is the technical face; the back is called the technical back. The technical face side of a twill weave fabric is the side with the most pronounced wale; it is usually more durable, more attractive, most often used as the fashion side of the fabric, and the side visible during weaving. If there are warp floats on the technical face (i.e., if the warp crosses over two or more wefts), there will be filling floats (the weft will cross over two or more warps) on the technical back. If the twill wale goes up to the right on one side, it will go up to the left on the other side. Twill fabrics have no up and down as they are woven.

The fewer interlacings in twills allow the yarns to move more freely, and thus they are softer, more pliable, and drape better than plain-weave textiles. Twills also recover from wrinkles better than plain-weave fabrics do. When there are fewer interlacings, yarns can be packed closer together to produce high-count fabrics. In twills and higher counts, the fabric is more durable.

Schematic of Twill Woven Fabric:

TwillWeave

Weaving Glass Fibers:

Due to the low elongation coefficient (% of stretch before it breaks) of approx. 2.0 – 3.5 %, weaving Glass Fibers require very precise machine adjustments. It becomes a little simpler when the yarns have been texturized, as the extra bulk in essence increases the elongation coefficient by the grade of texture.

Due to the “brittle” nature of glass fibers, the finer yarns require preparation to withstand the harsh friction caused by the reed. This preparation is called Slashing.

Slashing: 

While Roving or texturized yarns typically do not need any special additional treatment of seizing, the finer yarns typically do.

Slashing is a process in which the strand will be applied an additional seizing, aiding the weaving process. Without this additional seizing, the yarn in the warp will be starting to create “fuzz” from broken filaments. This is due to the reed rupturing the warp strands. The fuzz in return will influence the shedding behavior of the neighboring fibers. This may cause those fibers not to clearly separate from each other, when the shedding takes place. This will result in either a simple miss pick or in a complete yarn breakage in the warp.

The slashing typically handles two production steps in one;

a) application of the required additional seizing

b) warping the strands to a loom beam. (Note:Slashing can also be offered on a “bobbin-to-bobbin”-process, as well.)

In case of slashed bobbins, a second process will have to take place, which is called warping.

Warping: 

Warping is the process in which single strands of fibers (yarns) will be wound to a beam which is called a loombeam. This loombeam can then be either attached or connected to the weaving loom or put on a separate A-Phrame construction.

Depending on the desired weave construction, at times, two loombeams can be implemented. In that case, a top beam stand is mounted to the machine, holding the second beam.

There are three basic Warping Techniques:

a) Sample Warping

Sample Warping is typically for around 30 yards or under 100 yards, as needed, just for weaving samples. Other lengths apply, but in essence it is meant for short runs.

b) Sectional Warping

A Sectional Warper draws e.g. 200 single ends at a time and winds it to a loombeam. This is then called a section. After the desired quantity has been wound, e.g. 5,000 yards, the second section will be applied with the same yard count. In order to do so, the warper will be moved a small distance on a rail system, to be centered again in front of the next section. This process will be repeated, until the desired total end count has been reached.

C) Direct Warping

A Direct Warper draws all the required strands at one time and applies the desired quantity of yards in this one process. Therefore, while Sectional Warping and Direct Warping both result in the same end count with the desired max quantity per strand, the sectional warping process calls for multiple production steps, while the Direct Warper produces it in one production step.

The choice of the correct warping system depends on the mill’s setup.

Caution with warping, as glass fiber has a very low elongation coefficient, precise machine adjustments and tension systems are required.

Creel Weaving: 

More dense or heavier yarns, around 270 tex and up, are preferably woven on creels.

Two basic creel designs:

a) Pin Creel

Here, the bobbin is stuck on a pin.

B) Shelf Creel

Here the bobbin stands on a shelf.

While there are many different designs of pin creels or shelf creels, it appears that the shelf creel provides more flexibility, as some glass fiber manufacturers provide rovings for inside and some for outside unwinding. Rovings with inside unwinding cannot be used for pin creels.

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Textile Process: Knitting

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Demonstration of knitting and basic stitches

Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric.

Knitting creates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches, in a line or tube. Knitting has multiple active stitches on the needle at one time. Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive rows of interlocking loops. As each row progresses, a newly created loop is pulled through one or more loops from the prior row, placed on the gaining needle, and the loops from the prior row are then pulled off the other needle.

Knitting may be done by hand or by using a machine.

Different types of yarns (fibre type, texture, and twist), needle sizes, and stitch types may be used to achieve knitted fabrics with diverse properties (colour, texture, weight, heat retention, water resistance, and/or integrity).


 

Like glass-fibers, basalt-fibers can be knitted. Knitted fabrics are typically more flexible to the touch. This means they can be draped easier. That can  be an advantage in composite applications, when the knitted good needs to be draped around corners or curves. Knitted materials can be very tight and thick, as well. This could be interesting for conveyor belt applications, especially those which are dealing with elevated temperatures. The longevity of basalt knitted belts can be higher than glass-knitted belts.

Application Ideas:

  • Gaskets
  • Conveyor belts
  • Composites
  • Filtration
  • Pipe wrapping
  • Boats building
  • Leisure in general
  • Tanks
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Textile Process: Composites

Definition Composites

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the specific carbon and glass fiber based composite materials often referred to loosely as 'composites', see Fiber-reinforced polymer.

 Composites are formed by combining materials together to form an overall structure that is better than the sum of the individual components

A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. The new material may be preferred for many reasons: common examples include materials which are stronger, lighter, or less expensive when compared to traditional materials. More recently, researchers have also begun to actively include sensing, actuation, computation and communication into composites,[1] which are known as Robotic Materials.

Typical engineered composite materials include:

Composite materials are generally used for buildings, bridges, and structures such as boat hulls, swimming pool panels, race car bodies, shower stalls, bathtubs, storage tanks, imitation granite and cultured marble sinks and countertops. The most advanced examples perform routinely on spacecraft and aircraft in demanding environments.

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Basalt Application – Composites CNC

Given the right form, basalt can be also machined with CNC equipment.

The picture illustrates a basalt board which we asked to get machined in a shop in USA.

This allows for a lot more applications and to venture into completely new markets.

E.g. Gaskets for motors, appliances, doors, ovens, or for  insulation of pipes, just to mention a few.

The board we offer can certainly also be dye-cut or cut with a "box cutter".